The abessive

1. Use

The abessive expresses a lack of something. It often corresponds to the English preposition without. The abessive is rarely used in writing and even less in speech. However, it is found in certain commonly used expressions. For example: "joka kuritta kasvaa, se kunniatta kuolee" = "he who grows up without discipline, dies without honor".

2. Formation

The abessive is characterized by the ending -tta/-ttä. You add this ending to the weak stem (put the word in the singular -ssa). For the plural abessive, you use the plural stem (put the word in the plural -ssa). The abessive ending is added directly to these stems.

2.1 General rule: add -tta
Singular abessive
Nominative Abessive Translation
raha rahatta without money
jalka jalatta without a foot
varas varkaatta without a thief
talo talotta without a building
vene veneettä without a boat
Plural abessive
Nominative Abessive Translation
kissa kissoitta without cats
jalka jaloitta without feet
varas varkaitta without thieves
talo taloitta without buildings
vene veneittä without boats

3. The third infinitive

The -tta ending can also be added behind verbs in their third infinitive form.

Infinitive Abessive Translation
nukkua nukkumatta without sleeping
tehdä tekettä without doing
opiskella opiskelematta without studying
tavata tapaamatta without meeting
häiritä häiritsettä without disturbing