Consonant gradation for words of wordtype B

1. What is it?

Words which belong to word type B have a stem that ends in e or in a consonant. The most common endings for this word type are -as, -ton, -in and -e When adding a certain ending to this, you have to use consonant gradation. If you are just a beginner, I suggest you read the page about consonant gradation for wordtype A first.


2. When do you use it?

Consonant gradation takes place in every case for the wordtype B words, except for the partitive. This means that every form of these words will be strong, while the partitive remains weak like the basic form of the word. Consonant gradation only happens when the consonants are in at the border between the last and the previous syllable!

Unfortunately, there are other changes taking place as well:
- Words that end in an -e will get a second -e- added before adding any of the endings
- Words that end in -as will have the -as- replaced by -aa- before adding any of the endings
- Words that end in in will have the -in- replaced by -ime- before adding any of the endings


3. Which consonants change?

Weak Strong Example 1 Example 2
k kk liike -> liikkeet rakas -> rakkaassa
p pp opas -> oppaasta saapas -> saappaat
t tt osoite -> osoitteet soitin -> soittimella
nn nt ranne -> ranteella asenne -> asenteet
ng nk kangas -> kankaalta rengas -> renkaassa
d t hidas -> hitaat tehdas -> tehtaan
Ø k koe -> kokeessa varas -> varkaat
v p varvas -> varpaat taive -> taipeessa
ll lt allas -> altaassa helle -> helteestä
rr rt murre -> murteen porras -> portaan
mm mp hammas -> hampaat lammas -> lampaat
lje lke lahje -> lahkeet pohje -> pohkeessa
lje lke hylje -> hylkeet palje -> palkeet


4. Wordtype B words in all the cases

Cases Wordtype B word Wordtype B word
Nominative hammas puhallin
Partitive hammasta puhallinta
Genitive hampaan puhaltimen
T-plural hampaat puhaltimet
Inessive hampaassa puhaltimessa
Elative hampaasta puhaltimesta
Illative hampaaseen puhaltimeen
Adessive hampaalla puhaltimella
Ablative hampaalta puhaltimelta
Allative hampaalle puhaltimelle
       
Nominative vaate onneton
Partitive vaatetta onnetonta
Genitive vaatteen onnettoman
Inessive vaatteessa onnettomassa
Elative vaatteesta onnettomasta
Illative vaatteeseen onnettomaan
Adessive vaatteella onnettomalla
Ablative vaatteelta onnettomalla
Allative vaatteelle onnettomalle