The relative pronoun joka

"Joka" in its different forms gets translated as "who", "whom" and "whose", as well as "which" in English. It can be inflected in all the cases.

1. Joka

Finnish English
Tyttö on iloinen. Tyttö laulaa. The girl is happy. The girl sings.
-> Tyttö, joka laulaa on iloinen. The girl that sings is happy.

Joka is the most basic of the list, since it's in the nominative. Both sentences only have words in their basic form, so when connected, the conjunction word is in its basic form as well.



2. Jota

Finnish English
Mies on pankkiryöstäjä. Minä autan miestä. The man is a bankrobber. I help the man.
-> Mies, jota autan on pankkiryöstäjä. The man that I help is a bankrobber.

Look at the example. You can see that "mies" has been put in the partitive (miestä). If the word in the simple sentence is in the partitive, the conjunction should be in the partitive as well: jota.



3. Jonka

Finnish English
Kirja on tylsä. Minä olen ostanut kirjan. The book is boring. I have bought the book.
-> Kirja, jonka olen ostanut, on tylsä. The book that I have bought, is boring.

Look at the example. You can see that "kirja" has been put in the genitive (kirjan). If the word in the simple sentence is in the genitive, the conjunction should be in the genitive as well: jonka.



4. Jossa

Finnish English
Luin lehden. Lehdessä oli uutinen presidentistä. I read the newspaper. In the newspaper there was news about the president.
-> Luin lehden, jossa oli uutinen presidentistä. I read the newspaper, in which there was news about the president.

Look at the example. You can see that "lehti" has been put in the inessive (lehdessä). If the word in the simple sentence is in the inessive, the conjunction should be in the inessive as well: jossa.



5. Josta

Finnish English
Sammakko oli kirottu. Sammakosta tuli prinssi. The frog was cursed. The frog became a prince.
-> Sammakko, josta tuli prinssi oli kirottu. The frog that became a prince, was under a spell.

Look at the example. You can see that "sammakko" has been put in the elative (sammakosta). If the word in the simple sentence is in the elative, the conjunction should be in the elative as well: josta.



6. Johon

Finnish English
Tämä on kaivo. Poika putosi kaivoon. This is a well. The boy fell into the well.
-> Tämä on kaivo, johon poika putosi. This is the well into which the boy fell.

Look at the example. You can see that "kaivo" has been put in the illative (kaivoon). If the word in the simple sentence is in the illative, the conjunction should be in the illative as well: johon.



7. Jolla

Finnish English
Kuningas oli surullinen. Kuninkaalla ei ollut sydäntä. The king was sad. The king didn't have a heart.
-> Kuningas, jolla ei ollut sydäntä, oli surullinen. The king that didn't have a heart, was sad.

Look at the example. You can see that "kuningas" has been put in the adessive (kuninkaalla). If the word in the simple sentence is in the adessive, the conjunction should be in the adessive as well: jolla.



8. Jolta

Finnish English
Mies on autokauppias. Minä ostin auton mieheltä. The man is a car salesman. I bought a car from the man.
-> Mies, jolta ostin auton, on autokauppias. The man from who I bought a car, is a car salesman.

Look at the example. You can see that "mies" has been put in the ablative (mieheltä). If the word in the simple sentence is in the ablative, the conjunction should be in the ablative as well: jolta.



9. Jolle

Finnish English
Tyttö on kaunis. Annoin tytölle suklaarasian. The girl is beautiful. I gave the girl a chocolate candy box.
-> Tyttö, jolle annoin suklaarasian on kaunis. The girl, to whom I gave a chocolate candy box, is beautiful.

Look at the example. You can see that "tyttö" has been put in the allative (tytölle). If the word in the simple sentence is in the allative, the conjunction should be in the allative as well: jolle.


More examples:

Sentence Question
Nainen, joka istuu tuolla, on tyttöystäväni. Kuka istuu?
Nainen, jota minä rakastan, asuu Espanjassa. Ketä rakastan?
Nainen, jonka sinä näet tuolla, on tyttöystäväni. Kenet näet?
Nainen, jonka laukku on tuolilla, puhuu puhelimessa. Kenen laukku?
Nainen, jolla on pitkä tukka, on tyttöystäväni. Kenellä on?
Nainen, jolta minä saan kirjeen, asuu Espanjassa. Keneltä saan?
Nainen, jolle minä kirjoitan kirjeen, asuu Espanjassa. Kenelle kirjoitan?
Maa, jossa hän asuu, on lämmin ja kaunis maa. Missä hän asuu?
Maa, josta hän on kotoisin, on lämmin. Mistä hän on kotoisin?
Maa, johon hän matkustaa, on lämmin. Mihin hän matkustaa?


"Joka" in the most common cases:

Cases Singular Plural
Nominative joka jotka
Partitive jota joita
Genitive jonka joiden
Inessive jossa joissa
Elative josta joista
Illative johon joihin
Adessive jolla joilla
Ablative jolta joilta
Allative jolle joille