The active past participle

1. What are participles?

Participles are verbal adjectives which can be formed from all verbs. Like ordinary adjectives, they are declined in all cases and agree with the noun which the qualify. They can be in active and passive form, and have an 'agent' participle. On this page you find just the active past participle.

2. Use

pudonnut lehti = a fallen leaf
itkenyt lapsi = the child that has cried

2.1. Denotes an action that is over
Suomea opiskellut tyttö.
= Tyttö, joka opiskeli suomea.
= The girl who has studied Finnish.
Tampereella sattunut auto-onnettomuus
= auto-onnettomuus, joka sattui Tampereella
= the car accident that took place in Tampere

2.2. Denotes a situation that started earlier and is still relevant
Espanjassa 20 vuotta asunut ystäväni tulee Suomeen lomalle.
= Ystäväni, joka on asunut Espanjassa 20 vuotta (ja asuu siellä yhä), tulee Suomeen lomalle.
= My friend, who has been living in Spain for 20 years (and still lives there) is coming to Finland for the holidays.

3. Formation

Verb types 1 and 2: find the infinitive's stem* and add -nut/-nyt.

Infinitive Stem Participle Example English
puhua puhu- puhunut äsken puhunut mies the man who has just talked
syödä syö- syönyt puuroa syönyt lapsi the child that has eaten porridge
uida ui- uinut järvessä uinut koira the dog that has swum in the river
nukkua nukku- nukkunut nukkunut lapsi the child that has slept
juoda juo- juonut kahvia juonut mies the man that has drunk coffee

Verb type 3: find the infinitive's stem* and add -nut/-nyt, -lut/-lyt, etc.

Infinitive Stem Participle Example English
mennä men- mennyt mennyt loma the vacation that has gone
harjoitella harjoitel- harjoitellut taikwondoa harjoitellut poika the boy that has practised taikwondo
kävellä kävel- kävellyt metsässä kävellyt mies the man that has walked in the forest
nousta nous- noussut noussut ongelma the problem that has risen

Verb types 4, 5 and 6: find the infinitive's stem* and add -nnut/-nnyt.

Infinitive Stem Participle Example English
haluta halu- halunnut lelun halunnut lapsi the child that wanted a toy
kiivetä kiive- kiivennyt puuhun kiivennyt kissa the cat that climbed into the tree
tarvita tarvi- tarvinnut ruokaa tarvinnut mies the man that needed food
häiritä häiri- häirinnyt rauhaa häirinnyt koira the dog that has disturbed the peace
rohjeta rohje- rohjennut rohjennut varas the thief that has become braver

* The infinitive's stem is what you get when you remove the last (verb type 1) or two last letters (verb type 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) of the dictionary-form of the verb.

4. Rotation

If you want to make a participle sentence out of a "joka" sentence, you should "rotate" the information present in the sentence.

Mies, joka kävi yksin Espanjassa.
= Yksin Espanjassa käynyt mies.
Lapsi joka nukkui 10 tuntia.
= 10 tuntia nukkunut lapsi.
Lapsi, joka sai lahjan äidiltä.
= Lahjan äidiltä saanut lapsi.

5. Inflection

As said above, participles inflect freely. They will be put in the same form as the word they are connected to.

Näin leikkineen lapsen pihalla .
= I saw a child that had been playing in the yard.
Itkeneellä lapsella oli lelu kädessä.
= The child that had been crying has a toy in his hand.
Nauraneen lapsen äiti oli lähellä.
= The mother of the child that had laughed was close-by.