The passive past participle

1. What are participles?

Participles are verbal adjectives which can be formed from all verbs. Like ordinary adjectives, they are declined in all cases and agree with the noun which the qualify. They can be in active and passive form, and have an 'agent' participle. On this page you find just the passive past participle.


2. Use

syöty omena = the eaten apple
maalattu talo = the painted house

2.1. Denotes an action that is over, with no subject mentioned - either because it is not known, or because it isn't important.
Examples:
Söimme keitettyä kalaa.
= Söimme kalaa, joka oli keitetty
= We ate boiled fish.
Käsin kudotut puserot maksavat paljon.
= Puserot, jotka ovat käsin kudotut, maksavat paljon.
= Hand-made sweaters are expensive.


Formation

Verbtype 1: passive stem + -ttu/-tty.

Infinitive Stem Participle Example English
sanoa sanotaan sanottu äsken sanotut sanat the recently said words
maksaa maksetaan maksettu maksettu lasku the bill that was paid
ottaa otetaan otettu otettu pois taken away
lukea luetaan luettu luettu kirja the book that has been read


Verbtypes 2, 3: passive stem + -tu/-ty.

Infinitive Stem Participle Example English
nähdä nähdään nähty nähty ihme the miracle that has been seen
saada saadaan saatu saatu rangaistus the received punishment
luulla luullaan luultu luultu ajatus the thought that has been thought
opiskella opiskellaan opiskeltu opiskeltu kieli the studied language


Verbtypes 4, 5 and 6: passive stem + -ttu/-tty.

Infinitive Stem Participle Example English
tavata tavataan tavattu tavattu julkkis the celebrity that has been met
pelata pelataan pelattu pelattu peli the played game
valia valitaan valittu valittu ehdokas the chosen candidate
vaaleta vaaletaan vaalettu vaalettu seinä the wall that has whitened


4. Inflection

As said above, participles inflect freely. They will be put in the same form as the word they are connected to.

Examples:
Laulatussa laulussa oli 200 sanaa.
= In the sang song there were 200 words.
häirityllä miehellä oli kiire.
= The man that had been disturbed was in a hurry.
maksetun laskun summa oli 200 euroa.
= The sum of the paid bill was 200 euros.