Plural location cases

If you've come here, you must have learned about the singular location cases already. The plural ones are a bit more tricky, so it's important that you have no problem anymore with the singular forms before you start studying these.

This page deals with the plural forms of the inessive, elative, adessive, allative and ablative cases. The stem of the words you add these endings to is identical. This stem has been referred to on other pages of the website as the "plural stem". The plural illative is not included, because it follows different rules.

Please note that the plural rules for long and short words are different. On this page you find the endings for short words, meaning words of one or two syllables. Long words can be found elsewhere.



1. Words ending in a single vowel (-u/-y, -o/-ö): add -i- after the basic word, but before the case ending

Nominative Plural Translation
taulu tauluilla on the boards
talo taloissa in the buildings
ruusu ruusuista from the roses
hylly hyllyiltä from the shelves

2. Consonant gradation

Wordtype A

Nominative Plural Translation
tyttö tytöille to the girls
puku puvuista out of the suits
hattu hatuilta from the hats
juttu jutuissa in the anecdote
     

Wordtype B

Nominative Plural Translation
opas oppailla on the guides
keitin keittimissa in the boilers
tavoite tavoitteille to the aims
varvas varpaista from the teeth

3. Words ending in -ä: replace -ä- with -i- before the case ending

Nominative Plural Translation
isä isillä on the fathers
kynä kynistä from the pens
pöytä pöydille onto the table
kenkä kengissä in the shoes

4. Words ending in -a

4.1. Words of two syllables, with e, i or a in the first syllable and -a as endletter: replace -a- with -oi- before the case ending
Nominative Plural Translation
sana sanoissa in the words
kissa kissoista from the cats
hinta hinnoilla on the prices
leija leijoille onto the kites

4.2. Words with o or u in the first syllable and -a as endletter: replace -a- with -i- before the case ending
Nominative Plural Translation
koira koirille onto the dogs
muna munissa in the eggs
kukka kukista from the flowers
loma lomilla on the vacations


5. Words ending in -e: add -i- before the case ending

Nominative Plural Translation
huone huoneissa in the rooms
kirje kirjeistä from the letters
parveke parvekkeille onto the balconies
koe kokeissa in the tests

6. Words ending in -i

6.1. New words ending in -i: replace -i- with -ei- before the case ending
Nominative Plural Translation
paperi papereille onto the papers
pankki pankeissa in the banks
tili tileiltä from the accounts
maali maaleista from the paints

New words are words that haven't been around for ages yet. Usually they're recognizable because they're a loanword, like "pankki" for "bank", or "paperi" for "paper".


6.2. Old words ending in -i: keep the -i- before the case ending
Nominative Plural Translation
ovi oville onto the doors
nimi nimissä in the names
lehti lehdillä on the leaves
pilvi pilvistä from the clouds

Old words are very often nature words. After all, nature has been around for so long that Finns have had names for them since the very beginning. Some words are confusing, for example "äiti" (mother) is actually a new Finnish word!


7. Words ending in -nen: replace the -nen with -si before the case ending

For words ending in -nen, it doesn't matter how many syllables the word has. They all follow this rule.

Nominative Plural Translation
nainen naisille to the women
eteinen eteisissä in the hallways
suomalainen suomalaisilta from the Finns
hevonen hevosilla on the horses

8. Diphtongs ie, uo, yö: drop first vowel, add -i- and then the case ending

Nominative Plural Translation
tie teillä on the roads
työ töissä at works
vyö ille onto the belts
maa maista from the countries

9. Words ending in in consonant: here