Finnish for busy people

Words Ending in -mUs – Sopimus Taipumus Rintamus

Finnish has a fairly small group of words ending in –mUs. These nouns are generally derived from a verb. This derivation type is no longer productive: no new words are created according to this pattern.

Below, I have marked the most commonly used words ending in -mUs in green. If you’re a beginner, those are the words to study first!

1. Formation of Words Ending in –mUs

Words ending in –mus/mys usually have been derived from a verb. The –mus gets added to the strong vowel stem of the verb. There is also a small group of words that are derived from nouns.

1.1. Derived from verbtype 1 verbs

The biggest group of words ending in –mus come from a two-syllable verb, most commonly a verb ending in –ua or -yä. The -mus will generally be added to the strong stem of the verb.

  1. ‑UA- > kysy-ä → kysymys; petty-ä → pettymys
  2. ‑OA- > kerto-a → kertomus, aiko-a → aikomus
  3. ‑AA- > elä-ä → elämys; luotta-a → luottamus
  4. ‑eA- > hake-a → hakemus; koke-a → kokemus
  5. ‑iA- > sopi-a → sopimus; vaati-a → vaatimus
  6. ‑UtUA- > kieltäytyä → kieltäymys (doesn’t follow the pattern perfectly)
# Verb English Noun English
1 katua to regret katumus remorse
1 kysyä to ask kysymys question
1 kutsua to invite kutsumus calling, vocation
1 koostua to consist of koostumus composition
1 suostua to agree suostumus consent
1 taipua to bend, to give in taipumus inclination, disposition
1 myöntyä to consent, assent to myöntymys consent
1 täyttyä to be filled up täyttymys fulfillment
1 ärtyä to get irritated ärtymys irritation
1 pettyä to be disappointed pettymys disappointment
1 nöyrtyä to be humble nöyrtymys humility
1 juopua to get drunk juopumus drunkenness
1 kiihtyä to get excited kiihtymys excitement, arousal
1 mieltyä to fancy mieltymys fondness
1 viehtyä to be charmed viehtymys interest, urge
1 suuttua to get angry suuttumus indignation, anger
1 taantua to regress taantumus regression
1 väsyä to get tired väsymys fatigue
1 uupua to get exhausted uupumus exhaustion
1 nääntyä to languish nääntymys prostration
1 kiintyä to become attached kiintymys devotion, attachment
1 kääntyä to convert kääntymys conversion (faith)
1 turtua to go dead turtumus numbness
2 anoa to pleade, apply anomus petition, application
2 latoa to pile latomus pile (eg. ancient wall stones)
2 leipoa to bake leipomus batch of baked goods
2 kertoa to tell kertomus report, story
2 aikoa to intend aikomus intention
2 rikkoa to break rikkomus violation, offence
2 toivoa to hope, wish toivomus wish, request
2 uskoa to believe uskomus belief, notion
3 elää to live elämys experience, thrill
3 tietää to know tietämys know-how
3 kantaa to carry, to bear kantamus load, burden
3 ääntää to pronounce ääntämys pronunciation
3 luottaa to trust luottamus trust
3 tuottaa to produce tuottamus negligence
3 olettaa to assume olettamus hypothesis, assumption
3 ymmärtää to understand ymmärtämys sympathy, understanding
4 hakea to apply hakemus application
4 kokea to experience kokemus experience
4 tuntea to feel, sense tuntemus sensation
5 aistia to sense aistimus sensation
5 periä to inherit, come into perimys succession
5 sopia to agree sopimus agreement
5 vaatia to demand vaatimus requirement, demand
5 kärsiä to suffer kärsimys suffering
5 vihkiä to inaugurate, wed vihkimys initiation
5 pyrkiä to attempt to pyrkimys attempt
5 parsia to darn parsimus darning
5 tutkia to investigate tutkimus investigation, research
6 sitoutua to commit sitoumus commitment, obligation
6 kieltäytyä to forbid kieltäymys abnegation, renunciation

1.2. Derived from other verbtypes

There are also some -mus nouns that are derived from other verbtypes. Please note that –mus is a “dead” derivation type: no new words are being created following this pattern.

  • Verbtype 2: added to the third person verb stem
  • Verbtype 3: the stem used is either the vowel stem (koettele-mus) or the consonant stem (katsel-mus)
  • Verbtype 4: most of these have a long vowel (vedota vetoomus; seurata seuraamus)
  • Verbtype 5: ravita ravitsen ravitsemus
VT Verb English Noun English
2 luoda to create luomus creation
2 nähdä to see, view näkemys point of view
3 olla to be olemus appearance, presence
3 koetella to try, to test koettelemus ordeal
3 katsella to watch katselmus audit, review
3 ylösnousta to ascend ylösnousemus recurrection
4 seurata to follow seuraamus ramification
4 vedota to appeal to vetoomus appeal, petition
4 langeta to fall, indulge lankeemus fall (from grace)
4 todeta to note, to state toteamus statement
5 ravita to nourish ravitsemus nutrition

1.3. Derived from a noun, adjective or affix

Words ending in -mUs that are derived from a noun generally have one of two meanings. First, they can be words that refer to people, generally in a pretty derogative way. Second, they are often words that refer to a part of clothing.

  1. Words derived from a noun generally describe part of clothing
  2. Words derived from an affix, often similar to a postposition (eg. taka- and takana)
  3. Words derived from an adjective are generally either be a negative (a) or a neutral (b) term for a person.
# Base English Noun English
1 selkä back selkämys back side of shirt
1 rinta chest rintamus front side of shirt or pants
1 helma hem of cloth helmus hem of cloth (rarer)
1 silmä eye silmus ring in cloth, loop
2 etu- front etumus front side of shirt or pants
2 taka- behind takamus butt, or butt area of pants
2 sisä- inside sisälmykset entrails, innards (always plural)
3a ilkeä mean ilkimys mean person
3a laiska lazy laiskimus lazy person
3a raaka crude, harsh raakimus brute, cruel person
3a surkea pitiful, pathetic surkimus loser, pathetic person
3a tylsä boring tylsimys boring person
3b pyhä holy pyhimys saint
3b yli- over, superior ylimys aristocrat

2. Example Sentences

I’ve tried to keep these example sentences as simple as possible. I hope these will help you to understand these words better than the lists above and give you an idea of which verbs work with these nouns!

Noun Explanation
Esitän kysymyksen. I ask a question.
Esitän vaatimuksen. I make a claim.
Esitän näkemykseni. I present my point of view.
Esitän toivomuksen. I present a request, a wish.
Esitin vain toteamuksen. I just made a statement.
Kirjoitan kertomuksen. I write a report.
Kirjoitan anomuksen. I write an application.
Allekirjoitan vetoomuksen. I sign the petition.
Allekirjoitan sopimuksen. I sign the agreement.
Täytän hakemuksen. I fill an application.
Annan suostumuksen. I give my consent.
Annan sitoumuksen. I make a commitment.
Saan kokemusta. I get experience.
Toimitan katselmuksen. I provide a review/audit.
Kumoan olettamuksen. I refure the presumption.
Havaitsen rikkomuksen. I notice a violation, an offense.
Toivon ymmärtämystä. I hope for sympathy, understanding.
Suoritin tutkimuksen. I did a research project.
Aiheutan pettymyksen. I cause disappointment.
Aiheutan kärsimystä. I cause suffering.
Tunnen katumusta. I feel regret.
Tunnen mieltymystä symmetriaan. Symmetry pleases me.
Tunnen suuttumusta ja vihaa. I feel anger and hate.
Koen täyttymystä työstäni. I get fulfillment from my work.
Koen elämyksen. I’m having an experience.
Koen voimakasta väsymystä. I experience severe fatigue.
Koen uuvuttavaa turtumusta. I experience exhausting numbness.
Raahaan kantamuksen mukaani. I drag the burden with me.
Puran parsimuksen. I undo the parsing.
Poistan kalasta sisälmykset. I remove the entrails of the fish.
Työni aiheuttaa uupumusta. My job causes exhaustion.
Se herättää ärtymystä ja vihaa. It arouses irritation and anger.
Se herätti kiihtymystä. It aroused excitement/agitation.
Se aiheuttaa aistimuksen. It causes a sensation.
Viini aiheuttaa juopumusta. Wine causes drunkenness.
Liikunta tukee ravitsemusta. Exercise supports nutrition.
Se vaatii historian tuntemusta. It requires knowledge of history.
Taantumuksen ajanjakso on ohi. The period of recession is over.
Luottamusta pitää ansaita. Trust must be earned.
Työni on minulle kutsumus. My job is my calling.
Ihmisillä on taipumus lihoa. People tend to gain weight.
Ylpeys käy lankeemuksen edellä. Pride precedes the fall.
Pohdin ajan olemusta. I reflected on the essence of time.
Perimys on määritelty laissa. Inheritance is defined by law.
Poliisi määrää seuraamuksen The police imposes the saction.
Kaskin parsimuksen syliini. I loweredd the parsing onto my lap.
Aikomukseni olivat hyvät. My intentions were good.
Onko ääntämykseni oikea? Is my pronunciation correct?
Tietämyksen jako on perusehto. Sharing know-how is essential.
Jeesuksen ylösnousemusta juhlitaan. The resurrection of Jesus is celebrated.
Löysin ikivanhan kivilatomuksen. I found an ancient stone lath.
Lasten leipomukset ovat hellyttäviä. The kids’ baked goods are endeaing.
Frankensteinin luomus oli hirviö. Frankenstein’s creation was a monster.
Uskoni kesti koettelemuksen. My faith made it through the ordeal.
Uskomus osoittautui vääräksi. The belief turned out to be wrong.
Arvostan pyrkimystä kohti parempaa. I appreciate the effort to be better.
Selkämys oli irronnut kirjasta. The back of the book had come off.
Paidan rintamuksessa on logo. The shirt has a logo on the chest.
Paidan etumuksessa on logo. The shirt has a logo on the front.
Hameen takamus oli läpimärkä. The back of the skirt was soaking wet.
Joku ilkimys päästi koiran vapaaksi. Some mean person set the dog free.
Laiskimus ei siivonnut huonetta. The lazy person didn’t clean the room.
Isäpuoleni on oikea raakimus. My stepfather is a real brute.
Olen yksinäinen surkimus. I’m a lonely loser.
Olen mielikuvitukseton tylsimys. I’m an unimaginative bore.
Äiti Teresan on pyhimys. Mother Teresa is a saint.
Ylimykset olivat maanomistajia. The nobles were landowners.
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