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Consonant gradation LKI-LJE RKI-RJE

Words with consonant gradation LK-LJ and RK-RJ are quite rare. For nouns, you’re looking for the nominative case ending in LKI or RKI. For verbs, you’re looking for words with their infinitive ending in LKEA or RKEA.

Below, you can find a complete list of these words!

1. Consonant K gradation

Consonant gradation only affects the consonant K, P and T (hence the term “KPT-vaihtelu” used in courses). Here’s a list of consonant gradation pairs which include the consonant K:

Strong Weak Noun Example Verb Example
kk k pankki → pankissa nukkua → minä nukun
nk ng kaupunki → kaupungissa tinkiä → minä tingin
k Ø polku → polulla jakaa → minä jaan
k v luku → luvussa doesn’t exist
lk(i) lj(e) lki → jäljessä sulkea→ suljen
rk(i) rj(e) rki → järjellä rkeä → särjen

If you’re a beginner, your first question looking at this list is probably “how do I know which one of these changes applies?”. To answer this question, you need to look at the whole word in question: the surrounding letters will often give you a clue which consonant gradation change you are dealing with.

  • Words with a double –kk- never have any other pair than a single –k-.
  • Words with –nk- can only get –ng-.
  • Note that words like kinkku with -nkk– have -kk- gradation, not -nk- gradation!
  • Words with a single k that undergo consonant gradation normally get the k removed.
  • There are only 5 words that get a v: luku, puku, suku, kyky and myky.
  • Nouns that end in –rki or –lki will get –rj(e) and –lj(e) respectively.
  • Verbs that end in –rkeä, –lkeä or -lkea will get rj(e) and lj(e) respectively.
  • Note that nouns that end in -lkea (e.g. valkea) and -rkea (e.g. korkea) will not have consonant gradation.

2. Inflection of the noun kylki

Kylki and other words like it have wordtype A consonant gradation.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative kylki kyljet
Partitive (mitä?) kylkeä kylkiä
Genitive (-n) kyljen kylkien
Inessive (-ssA) kyljessä kyljissä
Illative (mihin) kylkeen kylkiin
Elative (-stA) kyljestä kyljistä
Adessive (-llA) kyljellä kyljillä
Allative (-lle) kyljelle kyljille
Ablative (-ltA) kyljeltä kyljiltä
Translative (-ksi) kyljeksi kyljiksi
Essive (-nA) kylkenä kylkinä

3. List of nouns ending in LKI and RKI

The following table shows only a few cases, but you can refer to the previous section for the full inflection. Note that all these words are “old words“. This means the basic form’s final -i will change into an -e for all the singular forms.

Word English Partitive Genitive Missä Mihin PP
kylki side kylkeä kyljen kyljessä kylkeen kylkiä
lki trace lkeä ljen ljessä lkeen lkiä
solki buckle solkea soljen soljessa solkeen solkia
sylki saliva sylkeä syljen syljessä sylkeen sylkiä
olki straw olkea oljen oljessa olkeen olkia
telki bolt telkeä teljen teljessä telkeen telkiä
arki everyday life arkea arjen arjessa arkeen arkia
rki sense rkeä rjen rjessä rkeen rkiä
kurki crane kurkea kurjen kurjessa kurkeen kurkia
rki tip, point rkeä rjen rjessä rkeen rkiä
rki roach rkeä rjen rjessä rkeen rkiä

4. Conjugation of the verbs sulkea and särkeä

In the following table, I’m only listing the most vital conjugated forms of these verbs. A quick reminder: Verbix is a useful tool to see the entire conjugation table of a verb.

SG1 present tense suljen särjen
SG3 present tense sulkee särkee
PL1 imperfect suljimme särjimme
PL3 imperfect sulkivat särkivät
SG2 imperative sulje! särje!
PL2 imperative sulkekaa! särkekää!
SG1 conditional sulkisin särkisin
present passive suljetaan särjetään
passive imperfect suljettiin särjettiin
NUT-participle sulkenut särkenyt

5. List of verbs ending in LKEA and RKEA

Abbreviations in the table below: SG = singular, PL = plural, with the number referring to the person (e.g. SG3 is the third person singular).

Word English SG1 Pres. SG3 Pres. PL1 Imp. SG3 Cond. Passive
kulkea to travel kuljen kulkee kuljimme kulkisi kuljetaan
nylkeä to skin nyljen nylkee nyljimme nylkisi nyljetään
polkea to pedal poljen polkee poljimme polkisi poljetaan
sulkea to close suljen sulkee suljimme sulkisi suljetaan
sylkeä to spit syljen sylkee syljimme sylkisi syljetään
rkeä to break rjen rkee rjimme rkisi rjetään

That’s all for words with consonant gradation LKI-LJE and RKI-RJE!

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