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Plural Location Cases – Monikon Paikallissijat

This article deals with the formation of the plural location cases. It contains the rules for the following location cases:

The plural illative (mihin) is not included on this page, regardless of the fact that it is one of the plural location cases. This is due to the fact that it inflects in a different way than all the cases above. If you want to move on to other plural cases, we have the following pages:

Table of Contents
  1. Words ending in -u/-y, -o/-ö
  2. Words ending in -ä
  3. Words ending in -a
    1. Words of two syllables (kissa-words)
    2. Words of two syllables (koira-words)
  4. Words ending in -i
    1. New words ending in -i
    2. Old words ending in -i
  5. Words ending in an -e
  6. Words ending in -nen
  7. Words ending in two vowels
  8. Words ending in diphtongs -ie, -uo, -yö
  9. Words ending in a consonant
  10. Consonant Gradation in the Plural Genetive Case

The plural marker that all plural cases have in common is an -i-. Depending on the word, the plural location cases can have -i- or -oi- before their case ending. In the tables below, I will be adding any of the cases I mentioned in the introduction. I’m doing this because their case endings are all added to the exact same stem, so they’re identical apart from their case ending (eg. taloissa, taloista, taloilla, taloilta, taloille)

1. Words ending in -u/-y, -o/-ö: add -i-

Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
talo taloissa tyttö tytöillä katu kaduilla
hylly hyllyistä pallo palloilla aamu aamuilla
pöllö pöllöissä helppo helpoilla sato sadoissa

2. Words ending in -ä: replace the -ä with -i

Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
kynä kyniltä metsä metsissä isä isillä
kesä kesistä leipä leivillä kylmä kylmille
pöytä pöydille ystävä ystävillä hätä hädissä

3. Words ending in -a

Just like in the plural genetive and the plural partitive, we’re dividing words ending in -a in “kissa-words” and “koira-words”. These two words are easy to remember and each belongs to a different group of words ending in -a. If you can remember “kissa – kissoissa” and “koira – koirissa” and apply that rule to other, similar words, you’re on your way to mastering the partitive plural!

3.1. Words of two syllables (kissa-words): -oi-

Kissa-words are words of two syllables. Their final letter is -a. In the first syllable, you will have either -e-, -i- or -a-. In other words, the vowels of these words can look like:

  • a…a (kana, maksa, sana, marja)
  • e…a (herra, tela, teema, leija)
  • i…a (kissa, tina, hinta, silta)

When you inflect these words in the plural genetive, you will replace the final -a with -oi- before the case ending.

Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
sana sanoissa hinta hinnoilla kala kaloista
kissa kissoille teema teemoissa marja marjoista
kirja kirjoissa herra herroille liima liimoista

3.2. Words of two syllables (koira-words): -i-

Koira-words are also words of two syllables. Their final letter is also -a. They differ when it comes to the first syllable: for koira-words you will have either -o-, or -u- in the first syllable. In other words, the vowels of these words can look like:

  • o…a (koira, konna, honda, nokka)
  • u…a (kukka, sukka, suora, juoma)

For koira-words, you will replace the final -a with -i- before adding the case ending.

Singular Plura Singular Plural Singular Plural
koira koirilla kukka kukkista tukka tukilla
muna munille loma lomilla oja ojissa
kooma koomissa tumma tummilta kuha kuhille

4. Words ending in -i

Words ending in -i are once again divided into several groups. The following rules only applies to short words. Long words (eg. lääkäri, paperi) have their own rules.

4.1. New words ending in -i: add -ei-

Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
banaani banaaneissa äiti äideille tiimi tiimeistä
pankki pankeissa posti posteilla maali maaleissa
tili tileille tyyli tyyleistä bussi busseille

4.2. Old words ending in -i and -si: no change before the case

Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
järvi järvissä ovi ovilla sieni sienistä
lahti lahdissa lehti lehdiltä pilvi pilvistä
vesi vesissä kuukausi kuukausilla susi susille
si sissä vuosi vuosilla reisi reisissä
pieni pienille meri merissä kieli kielillä
sieni sienistä suuri suurilta nuori nuorille

5. Words ending in -e: add -i-

Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
huone huoneista perhe perheillä osoite osoitteissa
kirje kirjeissä kone koneilta aate aatteilla
parveke parvekkeilta koe kokeissa palaute palautteilla

6. Words ending in -nen: replace the -nen with -si-

Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
nainen naisille hevonen hevosilla suomalainen suomalaisilta
eteinen eteisistä iloinen iloisille ihminen ihmisille
sininen sinisistä toinen toisilla tavallinen tavallisilta

7. Words ending in two vowels: remove one vowel, add -i-

Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
maa maissa sää istä jää illä
suu suista DVD DVD:illä harmaa harmaissa
vapaa vapailla kuu kuissa klisee kliseillä

8. Words ending in diphtongs -ie, -uo, -yö

For words ending in a diphtong, you will remove the first vowel of the diphtong and add -i- to the end of the word before adding the case marker.

Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
tie teillä v vöistä täi täistä
öillä t töistä suo toille

9. Words ending in a consonant

Separate page coming!

10. Consonant Gradation in the Plural Location Cases

All the cases in this article has a similar marker: they consist of two consonants and one vowel (eg. -ssa, -lta, -stä), both in their singular and in their plural form. As such, words inflected in these cases follow the exact same rules in the plural as in the singular.

This means that wordtype A words will always become weak and wordtype B words will always become strong.

Wordtype A
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
tyttö tytöillä pankki pankeissa puku puvuissa
pöytä pöydillä hattu hatuista kauppa kaupoissa
silta silloilla kampa kammoista hiekka hiekoilla

I have a separate article on wordtype A.

Wordtype B
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
savuke savukkeissa tavoite tavoitteilla soitin soittimilla
opas oppailla rakas rakkailta puhallin puhaltimissa
keitin keittimissä hammas hampaissa allas altaissa

I have a separate article on wordtype B.


That concludes the article on the plural location cases!

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